Biological Scientist vs. Physical Scientist
In Foreword of the book Common Sense Mechanics (Mulligan, 1982), Dr. Eugene Gottlieb stated "Orthodontists are biological scientists and have not always been comfortable with the physical sciences." And in Foreword of the revised edition, Common Sense Mechanics in Everyday Orthodontics (Mulligan, 1998), Dr. Robert J. Isaacson commented "While this idea may have had some basis in fact then, I am sure it is less true today."
But at present, mistakes in the use of units and fundamental mechanics are often found in the biological-sciences literature, unlike in the physical-sciences literature.
As an example, mistakes were made in the journal article “Forces and moments generated by removable thermoplastic aligners: Incisor torque, premolar derotation, and molar distalization” by Simon et al. (2014). And the corrections were later given by Vu (2014).
Mulligan T (1982). Common Sense Mechanics. CSM Publishing, Phoenix, AZ.
Mulligan T (1998). Common Sense Mechanics in Everyday Orthodontics. CSM Publishing, Phoenix, AZ.
Simon M, Keilig L, Schwarze J, Jung BA & Bourauele C (2014). Forces and moments generated by removable thermoplastic aligners: Incisor torque, premolar derotation, and molar distalization. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 145:728-36
Vu HV (2014). Readers' Forum, Letters to the editor: Forces and moments generated by removable thermoplastic aligners (Authors: M. Simon et al.). Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop,146:409
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